Chloramines and Chlorides

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Water treatment companies can choose different disinfectant methods and for a long time, chlorine was the disinfectant of choice; however, many municipal water treatment plants have switched to chloramines.
Chlorine dissipates quite rapidly into the atmosphere. Expose water to the open air for 24 hours, and it will become chlorine free.

Chloramines remain in the water. That’s good for the company tasked with keeping public drinking water safe from contaminants such as bacteria, which is bad for equipment. States and Cities currently treating public drinking water with Chloramines

USA

ALABAMA

Birmingham
Huntsville

ALASKA

Anchorage

CALIFORNIA

San Francisco
Anaheim
Fontana
Huntington Beach
Long Beach
Oakland
San Diego
San Jose
Concord
Chula Vista
Corona
Escondido
Fremont
Garden Grove
Glendale
Hayward
Irvine
Los Angeles
Moreno Valley
Orange
Pasadena
Simi Valley
Sunnyvale
Thousand Oaks

COLORADO

Denver
Aurora

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Washington

FLORIDA

Miami
Tampa
Coral Springs
Fort Lauderdale
Hialeah
Hollywood
Pembroke Pines
Petersburg

ILLINOIS

Aurora

INDIANA

Indianapolis
Evansville

KANSAS

Topeka

KENTUCKY

Louisville

LOUISIANA

New Orleans
Shreveport

MINNESOTA

St. Paul

MICHIGAN

Ann Arbor

MISSOURI

Kansas City
St. Louis
Springfield

NEBRASKA

Omaha

NORTH CAROLINA

Durham
Raleigh
Oregon
Greensboro

SOUTH DAKOTA

Sioux Falls

TEXAS

Arlington
Austin
Fort Worth
Houston
Abilene
Grand Prairie
Irving
Larado
Lubbock
Mesquite
Plano
Waco

VIRGINIA

Alexandria
Arlington
Newport News
Norfolk
Richmond
Virginia Beach

WISCONSIN

Milwaukee

CANADA

ALBERTA
Edmonton
Lethbridge
Red Deer
St. Albert
Strathcona
Wood Buffalo

 

BRITISH COLUMBIA
Abbotsford
Saanich
Victoria

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR
St. John’s

ONTARIO
Aurora
Brantford
Cambridge
Kitchener
Markham
Mississauga
Newmarket
Ottawa
Richmond Hill
Toronto
Vaughan
Waterloo

QUEBEC
Trois-Riviere

SASKATCHEWAN
Saskatoon

Total Chlorine – Free Chlorine = Chloramines

Chloramine levels not exceed 0.2 ppm. If the level is above 0.2 ppm, the corrosion process begins

Chloramines corrosion with granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment

CHLORIDES

The dissolved solids concentration in water is the sum of all the substances, organic and inorganic, dissolved in water. This also is referred to as “total dissolved solids”, or TDS. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and silica typically make up most of the dissolved solids in water.

Chloride is a major component of dissolved solids. The use of road salt—sodium chloride, the same chemical as table salt—for deicing is a major manmade source of chloride to surface water and groundwater. Application of road salt in the United States has tripled since the 1970s. Chloride discharge from water softener use, another major source, has not been quantified.

Concentrations of chloride have been increasing in U.S. streams, especially in urban areas affected by snow. Additionally, the presence of chloride increases the potential corrosivity of the water. Corrosion in water distribution systems affects infrastructure and drinking water quality.

Chlorides and corrosion report